Glossary

A 1

 

A 2

 

A 3

 

ago

Chin, jaw

ago tsuki-age

A strike or push to the chin

ai

To meet; love; harmony

ai-hanmi

To face each other in identical stance

aiki

Unifying or harmonizing ki

aiki-budo

“The martial way of spiritual harmony.” The name used by Morihei Ueshiba O’Sensei to describe his art, circa 1936-1942.

aikido

The Way to unify mind, body and spirit; the Way of peace; the Way to harmonize ki. Officially recognized as the name of O’Sensei’s art circa February 1942.

aikidoka

One who studies Aikido; practitioner of Aikido

aiki-en

Name of the martial art developed circa the 5th century a.d., and said to contain techniques from which daito-ryu jujutsu was created. The oldest form of aiki.

aiki-in-yo-ho

The aiki system or doctrine of in and yang, based on Taoist thought. Also written aiki inyo-ho

aiki-jinja

The aiki shrine, located at the Founder’s country home in Iwama, Japan.

aikijutsu

“The martial system of spiritual harmony.” The name the Founder gave his art prior to 1936 (Ueshiba-ryu aikijutsu), derived from aiki-jujutsu. Aiki-jujutsu itself is often referred to as aiki-jutsu.

aikikai

The World Aikido Federation headquarters, located in Tokyo, Japan, and headed by the Founder’s son, Kisshomaru Ueshiba Doshu.

aiki-ken

A sword used in accordance with aiki principles, swordsmanship in accordance with aiki principles.

aiki-nage

To throw an attacker without touching them, allowing the attacker’s force to execute the throw (see also sudori).

aiki-no-kokoro

The spirit of aiki or aikido; the essential heart of aiki or aikido.

Aiki-O’Kami

The Great Spirit of Aikido

Aiki-taiso

Basic aikido exercises performed solo, embodying aiki principles. Also taiso.

Aioi-ryu

An ancient system of jujutsu, one of many systems studied by the founder, aspects of which he incorporated into aikido.

ashi

Feet; foot

ashi-sabaki

Foot, feet or leg movement or placement.

atemi

A strike or strikes; striking. A strike to distract or disrupt you opponent’s focus.

ate-waza

Striking arts or technique(s).

b 1

 

b 2

 

b 3

 

bo

A cylindrical wooden staff, traditionally made of oak and roughly six feet long, often tapered at both ends.

bokken

A wooden practice sword

Bokken

wooden sword (also: bokuto, kidachi)

bokuto

Another term for bokken.

Bokuto

wooden sword (also: bokken, kidachi)

bu

Martial spirit.

budo

The martial Way. Budo generally refers to the study of a martial system intended for spiritual benefit rather than martial prowess.

budoka

The practitioner of budo.

bugei

The classical fighting arts.

bugeisha

A practitioner of the fighting arts; bushi

bujutsu

The martial arts. As opposed to budo, bu-jutsu generally implies a practical martial intent.

bushi

A warrior; a samurai.

bushido

The Way of the warrior; the martial Way.

C 1

 

C 2

 

C 3

 

Chi-kara

Physical ki; muscular strength or force.

Chi-no-kokyu

Breath of the earth.

Choyaku

To step back and turn.

Chudan

middle level

Chudan Tsuki

Middle poking strike (stomach)

Chudan-no Kamae

Middle position.  With bokken, the bokken is held in front just above waist level.

Chuden

The second or middle level of mastery.

D 1

 

D 2

 

D 3

 

Dai Nihon Kendo Remmei

All Japan Kendo Federation

Daito-ryu

A system of jujutsu founded circa 1100 A.D. by Minamoto Yoshimitsu. O’Sensei studied Daito-ryu under Sokaku Takeda and drew upon it extensively in creating aikido.

Dan

Level; grade.

Do

the way

Do

The Way; the Path.

Dogi

Martial arts practice uniform, usually referred to simply as gi; the uniform of the Way.

Dojo

Martial arts training hall; the place of the Way.

Dojo

training hall, literally "place of the way"

Doka

Poems or “Songs of the Way”

Domo arigato gozaimashita

thank you (polite form)

Doshu

A Grandmaster in a hereditary sense; a successor. Kisshomaru Ueshiba, son of aikido founder Morihei Ueshiba, is referred to as Doshu.

E 1

 

E 2

 

E 3

 

Eri

Collar.

Eri-tori

Collar grasp; to grasp the collar.

F 1

 

F 2

 

F 3

 

Fudo-no-shisei

Immovable posture.

Fudo-shin

Immovable mind.

Fune-kogi

Rowing motion.

Fune-kogi-undo

Rowing motion exercise. An aiki-taiso.

Furi

To swing; a shaking or swinging motion.

Furitama

Settling one’s ki; a shaking motion used to settle one’s ki.

G 1

 

G 2

 

G 3

 

Gaku

The calligraphy or motto on the dojo wall.

Ganmen

The face; the front of the head, as in an attack that area.

Ganmen-tsuki

See ganmen-uchi.

Ganmen-uchi

A straight attack to the face. Also ganmen-tsuki.

Gedan

lower level

Gedan

Lower level of mastery.

Gedan gaeshi

A low throwing technique; a low cutting technique with a sword.

Gedan Tsuki

Low poking strike (groin)

Gedan-no Kamae

Lower Position.  With bokken, the bokken is held in front with the tip lowered.

Geiko

Training. Also keiko.

Genki

Good health; vigor. Literally, good ki.

Gi

Martial arts training uniform. Shortened from dogi.

Giri

Honor; pride; a sense of duty and obligation.

Go

Five; hard style.

Godan

Fifth dan; a fifth degree black belt.

Gokui

Secret teachings

Gokyo

Fifth classification or pinning/locking technique.

Gyaku

Opposite; reverse.

Gyaku Yokomenuchi

A strike to the opposite side of the head.

Gyaku-hanmi

Opposite stance; to face one another in opposite stance (ex: Left hanmi facing right hanmi).

Gyakute

reverse hand

Gyaku-te

Opposite hand; opposite side.

Gyaku-yokomen

A strike to the opposite side of the head.

H 1

 

H 2

 

H 3

 

Hachi

Eight

Hachidan

Eighth dan; an eighth degree black belt.

Hajime

begin

Hajime

Start

Hakama

AN ankle length divided skirt worn by practitioners of many martial arts, including but not limited to aikido, iaido, jodo, kendo and kyudo.

Hakama

split skirt-like pants, at one time the everyday wear of the Samurai and now standard training attire for both men and women

Hanmi

A triangular stance where the leading foot is placed normal stepping distance in front and the rear foot positioned perpendicular to it. Weight is distributed evenly over both feet.

Hanmi-handachi

Two opponents facing off where one is kneeling or sitting and the other is standing; techniques practiced from this position.

Hansha

Reflection; the same side (ex: Grasping a person’s right hand with your left).

Hantai

Opposite; the opposite side (ex: Grasping a person’s right hand with your right).

Happo

Eight directions.

Happo-giri

To cut in eight directions.

Happo-to

To strike or jab in eight directions.

Happo-undo

Eight-directional exercise. An aiki-taiso.

Hara

Abdomen; the tanden; the one point.

Harai

A sweeping motion.

Hasso-no Kamae

Upper rear position.  With bokken, the bokken is held to the right of the head.

Hazushi

The point at which uke’s grip or grasp  on nage is broken.

Henka

Continuous; free-style (ex: henka-waza = continuous one-on-one randori).

Hidari

Left

Hidari Hanmi

Left Stance (Left foot forward)

Hiden

Secret traditions, arts or techniques; the secret techniques within an art or style. See also kuden.

Hiji

Elbow.

Hiji-tori

Elbow grab; to grasp the elbow.

Hiriki no yosei

Elbow Power

Hombu Dojo

The home or headquarters dojo of an organization. The Aikikai Hombu is in Tokyo.

Honte

main hand

Hozoin-ryu

A system of spear fighting founded in the 16th century. Studied by O’Sensei, aspects of which were incorporated into aikido.

Hyoshi

Timing

I 1

 

I 2

 

I 3

 

Ichikotae

change places

Ikkajo

Another name for Ikkyo, first control technique.

J 1

 

J 2

 

J 3

 

Jo

Staff

Jo

white oak stick of 128 cm.

Jodan

upper level

Jodan Tsuki

High poking strike (neck or face)

Jodan-no Kamae

Upper position.  With bokken, the bokken is raised above the head.

Jodo

the way of the stick

Jojutusu

the art, or techniques, of the stick

Jutsu

the art

K 1

 

K 2

 

K 3

 

Kaishaku

Assistant for Seppuku (cuts head off)

Kamae

stance

Kamidana

Alter

Kata

forms consisting of a prearranged sequence of movements

Kata

shoulders

Katamewaza

Pinning techniques (see Osaewaza ,Nagewaza)

Keiko gi

practice outfit

Ken

Sword

Kendo gi

quilted top worn in Japanese fencing and in Jodo, often indigo blue

Ki no Nagare

Ki-flow techniques

Kiai

Shout “Ei” for blows, “O” for thrusts

Kidachi

wooden sword (also: bokken, bokuto)

Kihon

basics

Kodachi

short sword

Kohai

junior

Kojiki

Record of Ancient Matters, the oldest book in Japanese history.

Kokyu

Breath

Koshi

hip

Kuden

Oral teachings

Kumitachi

Paired sword practice

Kyodai

equal

L 1

 

L 2

 

L 3

 

M 1

 

M 2

 

M 3

 

Masumitama

Pure heart

Maware migi

turn around (to the right)

Mawari Migi

Turn right

Migi Hanmi

Right Stance (Right foot forward)

Miyamoto Musashi

 

Mokuso

meditation

Moto E

Back to your line, on line

Moto e

return to original position

Munetsuki

Thrusting attack.

Muso Gonosuke

founder of Shindo Muso Ryu

N 1

 

N 2

 

N 3

 

Nagewaza

Throwing techniques (see Osaewaza, Katamewaza)

Naore

return sword

O 1

 

O 2

 

O 3

 

Obi

belt

Odo no kanwaza

Isogi purification practice or spiritual practice

Omote

outside, surface

Onegai shimasu

please (polite form)

Oodachi

long sword

Osaewaza

Controlling techniques (see Nagewaza, Katamewaza)

Otomo

Attendant and demonstration assistant

p 1

 

p 2

 

p 3

 

Q 1

 

Q 2

 

Q 3

 

R 1

 

R 2

 

R 3

 

Rei

bow

Ryoerijime

Two handed lapel grab with hands crossed (for a choke).

Ryu

school

S 1

 

S 2

 

S 3

 

Sabaki

Basic body movements

Saho

Frame of mind

Seiretsu

line up

Seiza

formal sitting (on the knees)

Sempai

senior

Sensei

teacher

Seppuku

Formal ritual suicide

Shidachi

User of the Jo

Shinai

Bamboo practice sword

Shindo Muso Ryu Jodo

 

Shinto

the way of the Gods

Shinto Ryu

sword school associated with Jodo

Shomenuchi

Downward strike, forehead to forehead.

Sogo no Rei

Bow to each other

Sotai Dosa

Mutual practice

Sotodeshi

Outside student

Suigetsu

reflection of moon, another word for "solar plexus"

Suki

an opening or opportunity

T 1

 

T 2

 

T 3

 

Taijutsu

Empty handed martial art

Tama

Soul

Tandoku Dosa

Individual practice

Tanto

Dagger

Te

hand

Tsue

walking stick or "jo", in compound words it is often "zue"

Tsuki

thrust

Tsune no kamae

ordinary stance

U 1

 

U 2

 

U 3

 

Uchi

strike

Uchidachi

User of the Bokuto, often the senior since uchidachi controls the timing

Uchideshi

Live-in student

Uchitachi

Attacking side of paired practice

V 1

 

V 2

 

V 3

 

W 1

 

W 2

 

W 3

 

Waki Gamae

Hidden Position.  With bokken, the bokken is held to the right rear with the tip down.

X 1

 

X 2

 

X 3

 

Y 1

 

Y 2

 

Y 3

 

Yame

stop

Yame

Stop

Yari

Spear

Yoi

ready

Yokomenuchi

Angled downward strike, forehead to temple.

Z 1

 

Z 2

 

Z 3

 

Zanshin

literally "remaining heart"

Zen – Ken – Shu

“Zen is Sword, is Brush”

Zengo undo

Turning 180 degrees on the balls of the feet.